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THE FATE OF MAN

social order." The mass determines what shall
be the accepted culture, art, literature, philosophy,
science, even religion. And there is no social
demand for culture of a higher order, for spiritual
culture, for real art or real philosophy. The
social demand now is chiefly for technics, for
applied natural science, for economics. There is
no desire for the things of the spirit. Spiritual
energy is switched over to be applied to objects
of anything but the spiritual order. The intel-
lectuals are socially defenceless; their existence
is deprived of all material support. They are all
too often compelled to feel their uselessness, and
to adapt themselves to the new conditions in
order to escape complete catastrophe.

The situation of the initiators and creators
of spiritual culture has never been easy. This
was true even in the epoch of the Renaissance.
Time and again they created, without knowing
for whom their work was intended, but their
creativity was comparatively free. Materially,
the writers, scientists, artists and musicians of
that era were dependent upon their patrons, but
they lived in a complex society, differentiated
rather than made uniform as is the tendency
to-day; they were under no dictatorship of the
spirit and could sail on any tack they chose.
The capitalism of the nineteenth century with its
secret dictatorship of money, deformed and